1. Process types of curriculum approaches that are process-based curriculum concept are concentrated less on summative activity – the final grades, the end-point assessments, plus the grading and achievements associated with them – than because of the path which learners take though a course.

1. Process types of curriculum approaches that are process-based curriculum concept are concentrated less on summative activity – the final grades, the end-point assessments, plus the grading and achievements associated with them – than because of the path which learners take though a course.

Where a student is being supported in a situation that is one-to-one of identified specific learning problems, there may well be active engagement about what is to be covered in the sessions for optimum effect and effectiveness associated with the help worker as a resource.    

Though there may be a definition that is everyday of’ which we may try make reference to the articles of the program, curriculum can move meaning according to context, and that the curriculum for the given program is open to reinterpretation and to being skilled in different ways, based on those contexts.  

do you know the many prominent types of curriculum?

Curriculum studies is a aspect that is long-established of enquiry, and entire publications can quite easily be discussing curricula the theory is that, and exactly how theoretical and philosophical aspects of training connect to the practical aspects of training. This section explores the basics of three significant conceptualisations of curricula: curriculum as procedure, as item, so that as praxis.

1. Process types of curriculum

Process-based approaches to curriculum concept are concentrated less on summative activity – the grades that are final the end-point assessments, plus the grading and achievements associated with them – than because of the path which learners take though a course. The journey is the chief concern, rather than the destination for process-oriented thinkers. 

you could have run into expressions like «»distance travelled»» (a way of measuring the enhancement in the long run a student has shown) or «»value included»» (frequently used in referring to the boosts directed at the qualitative aspects of an experience that is educational in training before (Tummons, 2012). Such terms are process-centric for the reason that these are typically pertaining to learners’ subjective experience of learning, and of qualitative measures of that experience that is educational. A qualitative impetus to process models of curricula which might be contrasted with the more quantitative focus of product-oriented models as such, there is, in general terms.

that isn’t to say that process types of curriculum aren’t concerned with marketing campaign results of learning, but that this is usually a set of issues that will be put to be of secondary relevance to that associated with the learning that is actual themselves. This will make a kind of feeling: then what is the more important: the final assessment, or the year spent studying to get to that final point if you undergo a year-long course? Both are of importance and neither should really be dismissed, but there is however a logic to the place that the experience that is course-long of importance, and should be a concern of focus.

Process models originate with Laurence Stenhouse – in their 1975 book An Introduction to Curriculum analysis and developing, he argued that there have been three aspects to curricula:

Stenhouse’s focus was on curriculum development as learner-centric, with an focus that is additional the autonomy associated with the specific instructor in effecting student development; curricula should consequently be not extremely prescriptive, while having latitude built in making sure that diverse methodologies and assessments can be utilized during the educator’s discernment (Stenhouse, 1975). Perhaps obviously, process-oriented conceptualisations are popular within training as they privilege the training of training, and put a value in the judgement that is professional of educator, while giving support to the intellectual growth of learners.essay writing business

2. Item types of curriculum

Where a conceptualisation that is process-centric of enquiry is centred on the holistic connection with the student, as well as on the instructor’s part in giving support to the student and their development, types of curriculum that are product-oriented are focused on locations in the place of on journeys. Certainly, alternate terms for this types of approach include ‘objectives model’; main to device types of curricula are concerns associated with achievement and also to learner competencies after having finished the course of instruction.

A prominent early educationalist whom is associated with the growth of the merchandise model as a curriculum paradigm is Ralph Tyler. Tyler’s 1948 paper basics of Curriculum and Instruction asked four sets questions that are key stay the bedrock of product-based curriculum enquiry:

Tyler argued that the more rigorous and clear the curriculum was, the better it could be scrutinised to evaluate its effectiveness, plus the more obvious the presssing issues which might cause underperformance in evaluation terms might be.

There are many positives and this can be associated with item types of curriculum. Achievements are important, and quality in curriculum design, and in aims and goals which provide themselves to quantifiable dedication of the being pleased or else ensures that there can be data-driven analysis associated with the effectiveness or else of the course of instruction (or of its distribution by a specific institution/teacher). Outcomes-based dimension are comparatively simple, for the reason that a result either has or has not been met, or a cohort is above or underneath the nationwide average, but it inevitably downplays the importance plus the information of the analysis that is qualitative-informed.

3. Praxis types of curriculum

Praxis, in the feeling of critically-informed training, has long been an aspect of academic and inquiry that is philosophical training. Praxis-focused conceptualisations of curriculum concentrate on the idea that curricula are designed and taught not merely out of unquestioning obedience, or through managerial diktat, but because there are aspects of training which accord because of the person’s philosophical or attitudes that are political the world.

training is not value-free, plus the curriculum may likewise be imbued with social and positions that are cultural have actually ethical importance. Often they are more overt than the others. A course in spiritual training might have curriculum elements which foster the respect of all faiths, for example. That isn’t to say that most training is driven by the imperative of environment and values that are reinforcing into curricula, though there may be an aspect of this to an individual’s training training. Likewise, there may be elements of a course to which the trained instructor may raise objections of one form or any other, and also this may influence the methods by which that subject or place is introduced or talked about in the classroom environment. The extent to which this is appropriate might be determined by the subject, subject, and context of training (Kelly, 2009).

No-one would wish become taught by somebody who does not have some type or types of individual passion or other investment in their topic and its particular interaction to learners, and in the help of developing those learners towards achievement in terms referable back in to the curriculum.  

options and synthesis of models

You might feel that the 3 types of curriculum outlined in this section aren’t easily divided. There are aspects of item, praxis, and of procedure which have effectiveness to us as educators; each notifies the journey that is educational underpinning ethical and social conditions, and results of our learners. Nevertheless, by isolating out different aspects of enquiry into curriculum-related matters, each of these positions seeks to explore them much more information, along with stressing the relevance of each aspect to us. They are not either/or choices in order to make, but approaches which a teacher that is individual privilege regarding a specific curriculum may realistically and pragmatically draw from each mode of analysis outlined above.

Why is it important to develop and streamline curricula?

it’s perhaps inevitable that curricula shall alter in the long run. As an example, in 2016, there is debate on the withdrawal of some an even programmes including reputation for art, archaeology, and civilisation that is classical at this degree (Weale, 2016). There are several parameters to choices such as the one above that is outlined. It has an argument that is economic one hand for cutting, and governmental and social arguments on the part of keeping the courses.

The majority that is vast of choices aren’t made during the level of program elimination, needless to say, but there are numerous factors which can be at play. Some choices are simple, and mirror brand new knowledge, or the consensus that is developing subject-related content at the time. Governmental factors are invoked; the growth of curriculum strands fostering attitudes that are positive diversity, inclusiveness, and threshold in civil culture not only mirror modern ethical values, but also work to ensure education is compliant with equality legislation. Economic parameters might recommend directions in training; not merely in supplying the abilities demanded by commerce and industry in the workforce, but the competencies in wider society which foster engagement with all the financial realities of the time. Successive drives towards embedding key and numeracy that is functional literacy abilities into curricula are associated back in to industry needs for a literate and numerate workforce at all amounts (Gatto and Moore, 2002).

there are additionally concerns of relevance and of making training palatable to learners. Reading lists tend to be refreshed, plus the primary texts learned in English classes at all amounts regularly revised to give what is considered not only a grounding in literary works and culture that is popular but also a reflection of culture as it exists. Commercial passions may play a part also in curriculum design. More than ever before, learners are conceptualised as clients- the curriculum has to be attractive to students that are potential not minimum whenever those potential learners might be taking on loans to fund their academic experience. 

Curricula aren’t documents that are live however they must be versatile and responsive in the long run to the contexts by which that training experience is supplied.


Gatto, J.T. and Moore, T. (2002) Dumbing us straight down: the curriculum that is hidden of education. 4th edn. Philadelphia, PA: Brand New Community Publishers.

Kelly, A.V. (2009) The curriculum: practice and theory. 6th edn. London: SAGE Publications.

Oxford English Dictionary (2016) Meaning: Curriculum. Available at: https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/curriculum (Accessed: 12 2016) november.

Schiro, M. (2012) Curriculum theory: conflicting visions and concerns that are enduring. 2nd edn. London: SAGE Publications.

Smith, M. (2013) Curriculum practice and theory. Available at: http://infed.org/mobi/curriculum-theory-and-practice/#process (Accessed: 13 2016) november.

Stenhouse, L. (1975) An introduction to curriculum development and research. London: Heinemann Academic.

Tummons, J. (2012) Curriculum studies in the learning sector that is lifelong. 2nd edn. Exeter: Learning Matters.

Tyler, R. (1948) basics of instruction and curriculum. Available at: http://blogs.ubc.ca/ewayne/files/2009/02/tyler_001.pdf (Accessed: 13 2016) november.

UNESCO (2016) various definitions of ‘curriculum’. Available at: http://www.unesco.org/new/en/education/themes/strengthening-education-systems/quality-framework/technical-notes/different-meaning-of-curriculum/ (Accessed: 12 2016) november.

Weale, S. (2016) Scrapping of archaeology and classics a-levels criticised as ‘barbaric work’. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/education/2016/oct/17/scrapping-archeology-classics-a-levels-barbaric-tony-robinson (Accessed: 13 2016) november.


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Welcome to chapter 12 of the ‘Approaches to Education’ module. Right now, you should have noticed that most of the theories we have dissected throughout this module overlap significantly with one another, and that a few are underpinned by comparable tips about training. Training in a classroom might mean that you are using a few theories that are different onetime. This chapter aims to look at where these theories intersect and also to offer some conversation regarding how this will work with training.   

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Learning Goals for this Chapter

By the final end of this chapter, we would like you:

Historic Background

In order to have complete understanding of SEN, it’s important to have grasp associated with the background that is historical the meaning and attitudes towards those who encounter learning problems. Academic training has been influenced by different types of impairment, the main two being the medical model plus the model that is social.


The model that is medical impairment as a individual problem which has its root in specific conditions, disabilities or conditions and this can be enhanced through medical intervention or some form of rehabilitation measure (Hedlund, 2009), in the place of considering the requirements of any one or group of people who are impacted (Burke and Cigno, 2000). Hedlund (2009) observes that this view of impairment concentrates solely on the problems of each specific condition that is medical purchase to formulate some kind of diagnosis as to how their problems are enhanced. This view is rooted in the ideas submit the century that is 20th saw individuals viewing people solely in the light of their problems and their limitations. Alfred Eicholz grouped requirements into three types that are specific mentally lacking, actually faulty and/or epileptic and retarded. The training for the ‘mentally lacking’ was supplied far from their peers and mainstream education, often in the united kingdom where they learnt abilities concerning practical farm work, for the reason that they were less likely to do any harm (Haskell and Barrett, 1993) that it was thought. This therapy is similar to the real way in which the containment of any contagion is approached, for the reason that people had been divided from culture ( a form of quarantine) because of the issue of impairment being included, thereby reducing any damage (Hedlund, 2009). The ‘physically faulty and/or epileptic’ had been positioned on a strict, clinically supervised diet in domestic facilities, being taught fundamental life abilities. Those who seemed actually healthier but less able than the others had been labelled to be ‘retarded’; him or her had been taught in unique schools for a basis that is day-to-day being provided with training and learning workouts that have been designed to assist them to conquer their issues to facilitate the joining of mainstream schools (Haskell and Barrett, 1993).

This model regards impairment as preventing people’ ability to function, as being a total consequence of health conditions or accidents. The fact that is very terms such as ‘retarded’, ‘mentally lacking’ and ‘defective’ were utilized imply people had been in some way broken and had been looking for fix in order to be ‘normal’. It was thought that the normalising procedure could be facilitated through training programmes or helps, and that the person’s situation could be enhanced by their practising, in order to hone their abilities such against their impairments or issues which were the result of their disability (Beith et al, 2008; Hedlund, 2009) that they could make some sort of valid contribution to society whilst protecting themselves. Labelling of the type or kind continued to be used in the training Act of 1944. The handicapped had been grouped in 11 categories that are distinct physicians whom utilized «»… pseudo diagnostic labels such as ‘educationally subnormal'»» (Topping and Maloney, 2005, p.3) in their descriptions of each category. Whilst this Act ensured that individuals who had any style of impairment had been entitled to education that is special it did label them as ‘suffering.’

This model is the subject of critique caused by its focus upon the in-patient and the issues they are able to do in spite of their difficulties that they face, as opposed to looking at their abilities and what. It precludes any consideration, due to a ‘diagnosis’, of a person’s potential, and highlights society’s shortcomings pertaining to opportunities that are providing those people who have any style of impairment.


The move towards challenging these long-held tips came with a change in the focus of attention from the deficit standpoint to one of concentrating on «»… social oppression, social discourse, and environmental obstacles»» (Shakespeare, 2006, p. 197). The social model of disability has provided an analysis of the social exclusion of disabled people (Hasler, 1993), with this model developing from the work of the Union of Physically Impaired Against Segregation [UPIAS] in the United Kingdom. The indicated goal of the team would be to ensure that anyone with any style of disability be afforded the chance to live independently and to have control of their lives that are own being able to participate in, and play a role in, culture. The British Council for Disabled People was established in 1981 in conjunction with the pressure placed upon government by the Liberation Network of People with disabilities.

The challenge that is first the UPIAS would be to redefine impairment. They argued that impairment was something that was imposed upon them, in addition to their impairments, because of their denial of access to complete and participation that is meaningful culture. This suggested, as far as they were worried, that disabled individuals were being oppressed (UPIAS, 1975). They defined impairment as «»… the drawback or limitation of task caused by a modern organisation that is social takes little if any account of people that have actually real impairments and thus excludes them from involvement in the mainstream of social activities»» (UPIAS, 1975 cited in Shakespeare, 2006, p. 198). It’s important to recognise that many supporters associated with the model that is social to the precision and validity associated with the statements and views that were developed by the UPIAS, in the current socio-political climate (Shakespeare, 2006).

The initial impact of the social model was seen in the Warnock Report (1978), which fashioned the fundamental principles of the 1981 Education Act in terms of education. Warnock’s document considered a child’s specific requirements whilst nevertheless supplying classifications that are general their issues and problems. Learning issues had been separated into four groups – moderate, moderate, serious and specific – with one of these being recommended in order to help notify educators and Local training Authorities (LEA) regarding the best means of supporting kids during the process that is educative. This facet of the report was critical for the reason that it stated that the majority of kids with SEN would have to be provided and identified for in mainstream schools. Moreover, the Warnock Report (1978) reported that as much as 20per cent of all kids would need some form of help during their time in school, hence the emphasis on the execution and monitoring of the recommendations that are 200 within it.

The training Act (1981) had been a watershed when it comes to supplying a meaning for unique requirements. This had been defined as «»a learning trouble which calls for unique provision that is educational be made»» (Education Act, 1981, 1.1). Unique provision that is educational defined as learning opportunities that have been arranged in addition to the tasks provided by the LEA. This Act put the responsibility for the scholarly training of those with unique requirements in the hands of mainstream schools, have been become provided with extra assistance via extra monies and/or materials and help (workers) through Statements of Special Educational want.

The strength of this model is in its ease of use – it’s effortlessly explained and recognized, and produces debate along with demanding change that is social. Through this debate, it identifies many of the social obstacles which must be eliminated, with Oliver (2004) commenting that it is not merely a concept but a tool that is effective which to come up with modification. It is a model which concentrates upon social oppression plus the responsibility that is moral of to change it self, in order that disabled people are in a position to engage more along with it. In addition, the model that is social possessed a good impact on the self-esteem of disabled individuals that allows them to make a individual share to culture.

Its weaknesses include the fact that there isn’t any acknowledgement that the person’s disability does have a visible impact for a person that is disabled life. In addition, it makes a distinction that is clear the disability (medical) it self and impairment (social), the distinctions between that are a lot more tough to distinguish in real world. The concept additionally fails to recognise that, regardless of how change that is much initiated, a barrier-free life if you are disabled is impossible to place into procedure in its entirety; for example, everybody else has to be able to read and compose to a certain extent in order that they have the ability to participate in everyday life (Shakespeare, 2006).

Learning Problems, Strategies and Addition

The section that is following to go over learning issues in order to provide a better understanding of some of the problems faced by those people who have unique requirements and exactly how educators help them in their development and learning.

using different and/or separate strategies with SEN students means that they have actually equality of possibility (Equality Act, 2010) to the curriculum which encourages a more comprehensive environment in the feeling that they are in a position to access equivalent product as their peers, albeit in a somewhat modified form. Various approaches enable kids to develop their interaction and communication abilities, that are improved by being in mainstream training. The addition of those with learning issues in mainstream schools also provide possibilities for improvements become made with their skills that are social one other kids additionally benefit from conversation with people who have issues, for the reason that they are able to create a feeling of empathy due to their problems and embrace their distinctions which encourages a feeling of unity and equality. It will also be noted that many associated with the approaches and this can be adopted with SEN students can also be used to effect that is good other pupils.

The drive for addition of all young kids is evidenced within documentation made by the DfE plus the workplace for guidelines in Education (Ofsted). The DfE (2014) specifically state that instructors should, in all their transactions with students, be aware of the equal possibilities legislation which covers race, intercourse, impairment, belief or faith, intimate orientation, sex reassignment, and maternity and maternity. It has also recently updated the SEN Code of Practice (DfE/DoH, 2015) to ensure that all kids and young people have access to the help they require from their childhood that is early right before the chronilogical age of 25, that also provides links to the kids and Families Act (2014) plus the Unique requirements and impairment laws (2014). Ofsted make its share through ensuring, as a part of their inspection of schools, that the requirements of those designated as having SEN are being met, inclusive of case studies pupils that are involving disabilities and SEN. Obviously, there is a dedication to supplying the best start that is possible life for many who encounter learning problems of any sort.

This dedication additionally extends to putting those people who have unique requirements in the proper place: it will not be the way it is that their requirements are well met through main-stream schooling through limitations in spending plan, staffing and the environment that is physical. Where an individual’s condition is particularly serious or requires more specialist help, supply within a school that is special be more suitable for them. Comprehensive training involves finding appropriate solutions for each specific student, by dealing with them as an individual and putting them at the heart associated with the process that is educative.


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